Arnold, James N., Vital Record of RI, Volume 6, Narragansett Historical Publishing Company, 1891-1912

Baker, Virginia, History of Warren in the War of the Revolution, Virginia Baker, 1901

Baptist, Edward, The Half Has Never Been Told: Slavery & the Making of American Capitalism, Basic Books, 2014

Bartlett, I. H., From Slave to Citizen: The Story of the Negro in RI, Urban League of Greater Rhode Island, 1954

Bartlett, John R. (ed.), Records of the Colony of RI and Providence Plantations in New England, 1678 to 1706, Volume III, Knowles and Anthony, 1858

Berlin, Ira, and Hoffman, Ronald, Slavery and Freedom in the Age of the American Revolution, University of Illinois, 1986

Bicknell, Thomas W., History and Genealogy of the Bicknell Family, and Some Collected…, Bicknell, 1913

Bicknell, Thomas W., A History of the Town of Barrington, RI, Snow and Farnham, 1898

Clark-Pujara, Christy, Dark Work: The Business of Slavery in RI, New York University Press, 2016

Coleman, Peter J., The Transformation of RI, 1790-1860, Brown University Press, 1963

Cottrol, Robert J., The Afro-Yankees: Providence’s Black Community in Antebellum Era, Greenwood Press, 1982

Coughtry, Jay, The Notorious Triangle: RI and the African Slave Trade, 1700-1807, Temple University Press, 1981

Geake, Robert A., and Spears, Loren, From Slaves to Soldiers: The First RI Regiment in the American Revolution, Westholm Publishing, 2016

Grundset, Eric G., Forgotten Patriots: African-American and American Indian Patriots in the Revolutionary War…, National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution,  2008

Horton, James O., and Horton, Lois E, Slavery and Public History: The Tough Stuff of American Memory, University of North Carolina Press, 2009

Johnston, William D., Slavery in RI, 1775-1776, Papers from the Historical Seminary of Brown University, 1894

Jones, Daniel P., The Economic & Social Transformation of Rural RI, 1780-1850, Northeastern University Press, 1992

Mason, Alverdo H., Genealogy of the Sampson Mason Family, A. H. Mason, 1903

Melish, Joanne Pope, Disowning Slavery: Gradual Emancipation and ‘Race’ in New  England, 1780-1860, Cornell University, 2000

O’Toole, Marjory, If Jane should want to be sold…, Little Compton Historical Society, 2016

Pierson, William D., Black Yankees: The Development of an Afro-American subculture in 18th Century New England, University of Massachusetts Press, 1988

Popek, Daniel M., “They Fought Bravely, But Were Unfortunate”…..The Story of Rhode Island’s Black Regiment…, Anchor House, 2015

Register of Seaman’s Protection Certificates from the Providence, RI Customs Districts, 1796-1870

RI Black Heritage Society, Creative Survival: The Providence Black Community in the Nineteenth Century, RI Black Heritage Society, 1995

RI Historical Preservation and Heritage Commission, Warren, RI, Statewide Preservation Report B-W-1, RI Historic Preservation Commission, 1975

Rider, Sidney, S., An Historical Inquiry Concerning the Attempt to Raise a Regiment of Slaves by RI During the War of Revolution, S. S. Rider, 1880

Roediger, D. and Blatt, M. H. (eds.), The Meaning of Slavery in the North, Garland Publishing, 1999

SenGupta, Gunja, From Slavery to Poverty, New York University Press, 2009

Slavery and Justice: Report of the Brown University Steering Committee on Slavery & Justice, Brown Univ., 2007

Sweet, John W., Bodies Politic: Negotiating Race in the American North, 1730-1830, University of Penn. Press, 2003

Warren 250th Anniversary Committee, Warren 250th Anniversary Book, Town of Warren, 1998

Wright, Otis, History of Swansea, Massachusetts, 1667-1917, Published by the Town, 1917

Youngken, Richard C., African Americans in Newport,: An Introduction to the Heritage of African Americans in Newport, RI, 1770-1945, RI Historic Preservation and Heritage Commission and RI Black Heritage Society, 1995

Primary sources

Aaron Lopez Papers and Aaron Lopez Account Book, Newport Historical Society

Births, Marriages, and Deaths, Town of Warren, 1774-1844

Rhode Island Judicial Archives

Rhode Island State Archives

Warren Town Records Collection, 1746-1811, Volume 1, Parts 1 & 2, Newport Historical Society

Warren Town Records Collection, 1765-1826, RI Historical Society

Wills and Inventories of the Town of Warren, Volume 2, 1789-1802, Volume 3, 1810-1819


Clark-Pujara, Christy, Slavery, Emancipation, and Black Freedom in RI, 1652-1842, Thesis, University of Iowa, 2009

Morrill, Rebecca, Religion and Social Influences Upon the Anti-Slavery Movement in RI, 1773-1799, Thesis, Brown University, 1989


Internet Archives

MA, Wills and Probate Records, 1635-1991

RI Historic Cemetery Commission Database

RI, Vital Extracts, 1636-1899

RI, Wills and Probate Records, 1582-1932

Slavery in the North

US Census Bureau

US Revolutionary War Rolls

Voyages: The Transatlantic Slave Trade Database

Wills and Inventories, Warren, RI